Obesity

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What is obesity?

Obesity is medical condition caused by accumulation of too much body fat. It is different from overweight, which can be defined by BMI( body mass index).

Your body mass index is calculated by dividing your weight in kilograms (kg) by your height in meters (m) squared

BMI=body weight/square of height in meter.

Normal BMI=between 18.5 to 25

Overweight=25 to 29

Obese=more than 30

Moderately   obese (class 1)=between 30-35

Class 2= between 35-35.9

Extremely obese= more than 40

For most people, BMI provides a reasonable estimate of body fat.

Waist Circumference

This helps screen for the possible health risks related to overweight and obesity in adults.

If you have abdominal obesity and most of your fat is around your waist rather than at your hips, you’re at increased risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 Diabetes. The risk goes up with a waist size that’s greater than 35 inches for women or greater than 40 inches for men.

You also can measure your waist size. To do so correctly, stand and place a tape measure around your middle, just above your hipbones. Measure your waist just after you breathe out.

Obesity increases your risk of diseases and health problems, such as diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure.

The best thing is that the modest weight loss can reduce the risk of diseases and can improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Lifestyle changes including increase physical activity with yoga and meditation, dietary changes and behavioral changes can help you to lose weight.

Causes-

Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and contributing factors, including:

  • Genetics or heredity  may also play a role in how efficiently your body converts food into energy and how your body burns calories during exercise.
  • Family lifestyle. Obesity tends to run in families. If one or both of your parents are obese, your risk of being obese is increased. That’s not just because of genetics. Family members usually adopt same eating habits and lifestyle.
  • If you’re not very active, you don’t burn as many calories. With a sedentary lifestyle, you can easily take in more calories every day than you burn through exercise and routine daily activities.Most people want to park vehicle as close as to the place they want to go..lazy habits.
  • Unhealthy diet(junk food) A diet that’s high in calories, lacking in fruits and vegetables, full of fast food, and laden with high-calorie beverages and oversized portions and binge eating contributes to weight gain.
  • Medical problems. In some people, obesity can be traced to a medical cause, such as Thyroid disorders , Cushing’s syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and other conditions. Medical problems, such as arthritis or post surgical bed rest can lead to decreased activity, which cause weight gain.
  • Certain medications. Some medications can lead to weight gain if you don’t compensate through diet or activity. These medications include some antidepressants, anti-seizure medications, diabetes medications, antipsychotic medications, steroids and beta blockers.
  • Obesity can occur at any age, even in young children. But as you age, hormonal changes and a less active lifestyle increase your risk of obesity. In addition, the amount of muscle in your body tends to decrease with age. This lower muscle mass leads to a decrease in metabolism. These changes also reduce calorie needs, and can make it harder to keep off excess weight. If you don’t consciously control what you eat and become more physically active as you age, you’ll likely gain weight.
  • Pregnancy. During pregnancy, a woman’s weight necessarily increases. Some women find this weight difficult to lose after the baby is born. This weight gain may contribute to the development of obesity in women.
  • Quitting smoking. Quitting smoking is often associated with weight gain. And for some, it can lead to enough weight gain that the person becomes obese. In the long run, however, quitting smoking is still a greater benefit to your health than continuing to smoke.
  • Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep or getting too much sleep can cause changes in hormones that increase your appetite. You may also crave foods high in calories and carbohydrates, which can contribute to weight gain.

Even if you have one or more of these risk factors, it doesn’t mean that you’re destined to become obese. You can counteract most risk factors through diet, physical activity , exercise, and behavior changes.

A primary care doctor (or pediatrician for children and teens) will assess your BMI, waist measurement, and overall health risk. If you’re overweight or obese, or if you have a large waist size, your doctor should explain the health risks and find out whether you’re interested and willing to lose weight.

If you are, you and your doctor can work together to create a treatment plan. The plan may include weight-loss goals and treatment options that are realistic for you.

Your doctor may send you to other health care specialists if you need expert care. These specialists may include:

  • An endocrinologist if you need to be treated for type 2 diabetes or a hormone problem, such as an underactive thyroid.
  • A registered dietitian or nutritionist to work with you on ways to change your eating habits.
  • An exercise physiologist or trainer to figure out your level of fitness and show you how to do physical activities suitable for you.
  • A bariatric surgeon if weight-loss surgery is an option for you.
  • A psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker to help treat depression or stress

Possible ways of treatment

Successful weight-loss treatments include setting goals and making lifestyle changes, such as eating fewer calories and being physically active. Medicines and weight-loss surgery also are options for some people if lifestyle changes aren’t enough.

Set Realistic Goals

Setting realistic weight-loss goals is an important first step to losing weight.

For Adults

  • Try to lose 5 to 10 percent of your current weight over 6 months. This will lower your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and other conditions.
  • The best way to lose weight is slowly. A weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds a week is do-able, safe, and will help you keep off the weight. It also will give you the time to make new, healthy lifestyle changes.

.For Children and Teens

  • If your child is overweight or at risk for overweight or obesity, the goal is to maintain his or her current weight and to focus on eating healthy and being physically active. This should be part of a family effort to make lifestyle changes.
  • If your child is overweight or obese and has a health condition related to overweight or obesity, your doctor may refer you to a pediatric obesity treatment center.

Lifestyle Changes

Lifestyle changes can help you to achieve long-term weight-loss success. Example of lifestyle changes include:

  • Balance between calories in take and calories out, physical exercise is a good to keep this balance.
  • Following a healthy diet plan
  • Learning how to adopt healthy lifestyle habits.(click here for few health tips)

Over time, these changes will become part of your everyday life.

Healthy diet plan

A healthy diet plan is

  1. Low in saturated fat, trans fat, Fat-free cholesterol, sodium (salt), and added sugar and low-fat dairy products, such as low-fat yogurt, cheese, and milk.
  2. High in dietary fibers such as fresh vegetables and fruits.
  3. High in protein, such as lean meat, fish, poultry without skin, beans, and peas.
  4. Whole-grain and multigrain foods, such as whole-wheat bread, rye bread, multigrain bread, oatmeal, and brown rice.

Canola and olive oils, and soft margarines made from these oils, are heart healthy. However, you should use them in small amounts because they’re high in calories.

You also can include unsalted nuts, like walnuts and almonds, in your diet as long as you limit the amount you eat (nuts also are high in calories).

Physical Activity with Yoga and meditation

Being physically active and eating fewer calories will help you lose weight and keep weight off over time. Physical activity with yoga and meditation also will benefit you in other ways. It will:

  • Lower your risk for heart disease, heart attack, diabetes, and cancers (such as breast, uterine, and colon cancers)
  • Strengthen your heart and help your lungs work better
  • Strengthen your muscles and keep your joints in good condition
  • Slow bone loss
  • Give you more energy
  • Help you relax and better cope with stress
  • Allow you to fall asleep more quickly and sleep more soundly
  • Give you an enjoyable way to share time with friends and family

 

If you have a heart problem or chronic disease, such as heart disease, diabetes, or high blood pressure, talk with your doctor about what types of physical activity are safe for you. You also should talk with your doctor about safe physical activities if you have symptoms such as chest pain or dizziness

Behavioral Changes

Changing your behaviors or habits related to food and physical activity is important for losing weight. The first step is to understand which habits lead you to overeat or have an inactive lifestyle. The next step is to change these habits.

You might be more likely to overeat when watching TV, when treats are available at work, or when you’re with a certain friend. Instead of watching TV, dance to music in your living room or go for a walk.

  • Leave the office break room right after you get a cup of coffee, or lunch.
  • Always park your car as far as you can and walk till office or shop or mall.
  • Do not use elevator or escalator,always use stairs .

 

Weight-Loss Medicines

Weight-loss medicines approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) might be an option for some people. You should only use medicines as last option, and if you need to go for medication then also includes diet, physical activity, and behavioral changes as part of your plan.

Orlistat (Xenical and Alli)

Orlistat (Xenical) causes a weight loss between 5 and 10 pounds, although some people lose more weight. Most of the weight loss occurs within the first 6 months of taking the medicine.

People taking Xenical need regular checkups with their doctors, especially during the first year of taking the medicine.

The FDA also has approved Alli, an over-the-counter (OTC) weight-loss aid for adults. Alli is the lower dose form of orlistat. Alli is meant to be used along with a reduced-calorie, low-fat diet and physical activity.

Both Xenical and Alli reduce the absorption of fats, fat calories, and vitamins A, D, E, and K to promote weight loss. Both medicines also can cause mild side effects, such as oily and loose stools. Although rare, some reports of liver disease have occurred with the use of orlistat.  Talk with your doctor if you’re considering using Xenical or Alli to lose weight. He or she can discuss the risks and benefits with you.

 

Lorcaserin Hydrochloride (Belviq) and Qsymia

In July 2012, the FDA approved two new medicines for chronic (ongoing) weight management. Lorcaserin hydrochloride (Belviq) and Qsymia are approved for adults who have a BMI of 30 or greater. (Qsymia is a combination of two FDA-approved medicines: phentermine and topiramate.) Both medicines are meant to be used along with a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity.

Weight-Loss Surgery

Weight-loss surgery might be an option for people who have extreme obesity (BMI of 40 or more) when other treatments have failed.

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